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Onderstaande is afkomstig van de volgende site van De geschiedenis van Flores (3-talig: Nederlands, Engels en Indonesisch). (Omdat het waarschijnlijk niet on-line te bereiken is, heb ik het op mijn site geplaatst; de links zullen dan ook niet werken!)


History of Flores

Like other islands in the area, Flores has been long under the influence of various outside forces back since the 13th century as historical documents1 go. However, except for occasional references found in Javanese and Chinese sources, the islands in Nusa Tenggara Timur were not mentioned in historical documents in any detail until the 16th century, when the Portuguese arrived in this area of Indonesia.

Seperti pulau2 lain di wilayah ini, pulau Flores itu ada dibawah banyak pengaruh dari luar sejak abad ke 13 seperti diketahui melalui dokumen dokumen tertulis. Padahal, kecuali beberapa deskripsi terdapat di dalam dokumen Cina dan Java, pulau2 di N.T.T. jarang disebut dengan teliti sampai abad ke 16.

Beginning

Between the 16th century and the 17th century, Islam is said to have come to Ende.2 The Portuguese arrived at Malaka in 1511. The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602. Thus the history of Ende in the 16th century deals mostly with the struggle between Muslims and Portuguese and that in the 17th century should deal with these two forces plus the Dutch East India Company.

Dianata abad ke 16 sama ke 17, agama Islam datang sampai di Ende. Orang Portugis sudah sampai di Malaka pada tahun 1511. VOC didirikan di Belanda pada 1602. Begitu didalam sejarah Ende didalam abad ke 16, kita harus melihat perjuangan diantara orang Islam dan orang Portugis, dan kemudain di dalam abad berikut, kita harus melihat perjuangan mereka dengan VOC.

After their arrival in the area, the Portuguese made Solor (an eastern island off the mainland Flores) the centre of their trade. Repeated attacks on Solor by the Javanese seafaring traders suggest that the island had already been used as a trading port by the Javanese (especially for the sandalwood derived from Timor) ([rouffaer-22]: 40). Nagarakertagama mentioned that Solot (Solor-Flores) belonged to Majapahit. The small island called Pulau Ende in the Bay of Ende seems to have served the same purpose for the Javanese.

Orang orang Portugis, setelah mereka tiba di wilayah ini, mebuat pulau Solor (suatu pulau sebelah timur dari pulau Flores) pusat perdagangan mereka. Katanya, pedagang orang Java sering mencoba rampas pulau ini. Rupanya pada waktu itu, sudah orang Java memakai pulau Solor dengan maksud yang sama (barangkali untuk perdagangan kayu putih berasal dari pulau Timor). Menurut Nagarakertagama, Solot (artinya, Solor dan Flores) adalah suatu bagian Majapahit. Suatu pulau yang kecil, namanya pulau Ende, yang terletak di teluk Ende, juga rupanya dipakai orang Java.

The Portuguese and the Muslims

In 1561, the first Bishop in Malaka sent three missionaries to Solor, where, after an attack by Javanese Muslims, they constructed a fortress ([rouffaer-22]: 40). Also, on Pulau Ende, the Portuguese constructed a fortress there. The two fortresses are the main scenes of the struggle among the Portuguese, Muslims and, later on, the Dutch.

Pada tahun 1561, Uskup pertama di Malaka mengirim tiga orang missi ke pulau Solor, dimana mereka mendirikan suatu benteng setelah mereka diserbu oleh orang Java Muslim. Juga di pulau Ende, satu lagi benteng didirikan oleh orang Portugis. Dua duanya kemudian hari menjadi lapangan perang diantara orang Portugis, orang Muslim dan, kemudian, orang Belanda.

A tale of struggle between the Christians and the Muslims on Pulau Ende is told in a legend about a beautiful woman, Réndo, the daughter of the commander of the fortress. That tale is usually referred to as Réndo Raté Rua, or ``Réndo of the Two Tombs.'' The story is as follows:

Suatu dongeng mengenai orang orang Kristen dengang orang Muslim di pulau Ende ceritakan tentang gadis cantik, yang bernama Réndo, anak perempuang dari komander benteng. Dongeng itu sering berjudul Réndo Raté Rua, Réndo yang punya dua tempat kuburan. Dogengnya begini:
Réndo was the daughter of a Portuguese commander of the fortress and a Numba woman. She had a long hair which was repa rhima rua (seven yards), siku rhima rua (seven elbows), pangga rhima rua (seven hands), faté rhima rua (seven cubits) long. And her throat was so white that one could see the water going down through it.
Réndo adalah anak perempuan dari komando orang Portugis di benteng itu dan gadis Numba. Dia punya rambutnya panjang; panjangnya yaitu tujuh depa, tujuh siku, tujuh lima, tujuh faté tujuh.
When her father was away from the fortress, a troop of [Javanese] pirates attacked the fortress. Réndo's lover Jebé Jawa, a Javanese working in the fortress, was killed at that time.
Pada suatu waktu ayahnya tidak ada di benteng, bajak laut menyerbu benteng itu. Kekasihnya Réndo, bernama Jabé Jawa, suatu orang Jawa yang bekerja di benteng itu, dibunuh pada waktu penyerbuan itu.
The leader of the pirates, Ndoké Rua, was going to take Réndo away; but she and her slave, Tonjo, managed to escape from him. They ran to a place called '\'Eko Reko bringing a golden tray with them.
Pepminpin bajak laut, namanya Ndoké Rua, mau membawa Réndo. Tetapi, Réndo sama hamba dia (namanya Tonjo) dapat melarikan diri dari dia. Mereka lari sampai tempat yang bernama \'Eko Reko, sementara membawa juga suatu piring emas.
The two women threatened the pirates by making papaya leaves look like a cannon. This trick, however, did not work for long. Then Réndo and Tonjo were about to jump into the sea, when they found a fisherman. They asked him a favour and borrowed his boat.
Dua gadis itu membuat daunnya papaya suatu meriam, begitu berhasil mengakutkan bajak laut. Tetapi tidak lama, bajak laut sudah tahu itu hanya
When Ndoké Rua, with his pirates, arrived at 'éko Reko, Réndo and Tonjo were already in the middle of the sea. Ndoké Rua, finding no boats available there, prayed for rain and wind. There came big waves and their boat sank.
Réndo and Tonjo died. Réndo's father moved to Royo Hayon.3
Réndo has two tombs: one on the island; and another in Numba, which now serves as a boundary between two ritual domains called Tana Rhorho and Tana Déa. The slave, Tonjo, turned into a flower, which is now called by the name of Tonjo.

Van Suchtelen collects a shorter version of the same story4. The interesting difference is that the bad guy, Ndoké Rua, is, in this version, a priest working in the fortress.

Lang, zeer lang geleden waren op Poelau Endeh Portugeezen, die handel dreven. Ze waren bevreesd voor zeerovers en bouwden zich een fort, waarvan nu nog de ru\"\i{}nes zichtbaar zijn.
De commandant van het fort ws Loei Parela koemi toro (Don Luiz Pareira met den rooden baard). Hij had een beeldschoone dochter Reendo; het mooiste was heur haar, dat 7 vaam en 7 el mat.
Haar minnaar was een luitenant Djebeh en hij bezat haar wederliefde.
Daar was ook een priester Ndokeh roea, die haar begeerde, maar Reendo wilde niets van hem weten.
Toen doodde Ndokeh roea den jongen Djebeh en dacht Reendo zoo te krijgen.
Maar Reendo vluchtte en Ndokeh roea vervolgde haar. Ten einde raad vluchtte Reendo naar den overwal, naar Noemba en daar stierf ze van vermoeienis en verdriet. Haar graf staat er nog en staat bekend onder den naam Rateh Reendo. Het is een grenspunt tusschen de landschappen Endeh en Tanah Rea. ([suchtelen-21]: 166)

Accompanying this story is the song of Réndo:

Jo Solo gébo

Jo Solo (=Ndoké Rua) attacked

ma'é pani Réndo

Don't take away Réndo

Réndo raté rua

Réndo of the two tombs

tau nggéra nusa

He destroyed the island

nusa 'ata E ndé

The island of the Endenese

Bima 'orho 'ésé

Bima wanted to occupy

Bima ramu rarhé

Bima to the west

'orho 'ésé Sapé

Wanted to occupy Sapé [the eastern coast of Bima]

Sapé jedho Kemo

Sapé felt sorry for Kemo [a place on the Pulau Ende]

wua mesu Mando

Felt pity for Mando [also a place name on the island]

'éru nandé tarho

They (the Endenese) could not sleep well.

This song is difficult to understand not only for the anthropologist but also for the people themselves; yet every one knows a bit of this poem (the above example is a patchwork of several different versions).5

The struggle between the Portuguese and the Muslims (not only Javanese, but also native people who had been converted to Islam) continued on the island of Flores.6

After some years of peace,7 in 1605, the Portuguese on Pulau Ende were driven out by the natives to a village on the mainland Flores, called Numba.

At the beginning of the 17th century, there happened an interesting episode in the history of Flores, which tells us the relation between a Makasarese princedom and some native headmen on Flores. In 1602, a native headman, called Ama Kira (according to Rouffaer; the original Portuguese rendering of the name is Amequira) raised the war, and Ama Kira asked for the help of a Makasarese prince, who sent a fleet under the command of a man called Dom Joao (apparently once a Christian). The fleet under Dom Joao attacked the fortress on Pulau Ende, and was defeated. Dom Joao, after the defeat, returned to Makassar, and the prince of Makassar sent rice to Solor and concluded a peace with the Portuguese ([rouffaer-22]: 43-4) ([suchtelen-21]:9) [abrulrachman-82]).

The fortress on Pulau Ende was burned down. Since this time until its recovery in 1613 Pulau Ende was abandoned by the Christians.

Dutch East India Company

1613 is a significant year in the history of eastern Indonesia. A Dutch fleet under the command of Apollonius Scotte (or Scot) sailed through the islands. Before arriving at Kupang,8 Scotte went to Solor and attacked the fortress there and took it from the Portuguese. The Portuguese, or more precisely, the ``black Portuguese'' 9 fled to Larantuka,10 which, from that time, became the centre of the black Portuguese. The Dutch attacked Larantuka also, but failed to take it. Adrian van der Velden, Scotte's deputy commander, went to Ende, and found the ruin of the fortress there11 ([suchtelen-21]:9) ([rouffaer-22]: 45).

In the decades between 1610 and 1640, the Portuguese in Larantuka and the Dutch on Solor played a kind of see-saw game, which, in the long run, turned in favour of the Dutch.

The Portuguese in Larantuka, in 1616, managed to defeat the Dutch on Solor and regained the fortress, only to lose it again in two years. In 1618, the Dutch made an assault on Larantuka, and failed. In 1625 and 1629, the Portuguese attacked the fortress, and in the latter battle, the fortress became the possession of the Portuguese. But the Portuguese occupation of Solor did not last for ten years. In 1636, attacked by the Dutch, the Portuguese had to abandon the fortress again, and this time, forever.

The fortress on Solor was occupied by the Dutch in 1646 ([rouffaer-22]: 48-50) ([suchtelen-21]: 10).

The fortress on Pulau Ende had been destroyed earlier in 1620's (the exact date is unknown). Unlike Solor, which remained significant in the Dutch Company/Colonial Rule context, Pulau Ende ceased to play any important role. The city of Ende, where the rajadom of Ende may already have formed, replaced Pulau Ende as a focus point in central Flores. Around this time, the Portuguese influence over the area waned.

Even though the formal transference of Flores from the Portuguese to the Dutch took place as late as 1851 and 1859 (eastern Flores), the Portuguese began to lose their control over this part after 1657, when the Dutch East India Company established Fort Concordia in Kupang and the Dutch began to set a strong hold on the area.

Through the 17th and 18th centuries, there are occasional references to the relations concluded between the Dutch East India Company and some Endenese headmen.

Baraai, a coastal Endenese village about 6 km west of the city of Ende, recognized its subordination to the Company and received a ``posthouder'' in 1691. The posthouder, though, seems to have stayed there only for a short time ([bruyne-47b]: 57).

The Company selected Ende as a rajadom.

In 1756, the rajadom of Ende is said to have exported its cinnamon to the Company. This fact suggests that even though there were many equally strong headmen in central Flores, Ende became conspicuous among them by this time.

And the company concluded a formal contract in 1793; a ``tolk'' (an interpreter) was sent to Ende ([suchtelen-21]: 11).

The Dutch Colonial Rule before 1907

The Dutch East India Company's involvement in eastern Indonesia ended in 1799 when the Company's charter expired. Then came a new era of the Dutch Colonial rule in Indonesia.

This era can be divided, in central Flores, into two periods, 1907 marking the transition between the two. During the earlier period, there was no serious intervention by the Dutch Government in Flores. This period can be further divided into two: (1) the period before 1890 and (2) that after 1890. In the former period, the Dutch colonial rule had virtually no hold over the region.

Before 1890

Because the Endenese involvement in the sphere of occasional raids on Sumba and the resulting slave trade was against the Dutch colonial policy, in 1836 the Dutch government in Kupang sent an expedition to Ende. There took place a battle between this expedition and the rajadom of Ende. The latter surrendered and recognized the authority of the Netherlands.

According to Bruyne (1947), on 14 May 1838, Ende was punished for its pirate activity by the two ships ([bruyne-47b]: 6).

Since that time, the raja of Ende and the Dutch Colonial government made successive contracts.

In 1839, the raja of Ende (Bousou) concluded a contract with the Dutch Colonial Government [vandijk-25,vandijk-34] ([suchtelen-21]: 11). In 1855, Ende received a Malay-speaking ``posthouder'' (van Suchtelen 21: 11). Incidentally, he was a Christian native from Kupang ([vries-10]:13) and could not speak Dutch [anon-beschrijving]. In 1861, the raja of Ende (Pandé) concluded a long contract with the Dutch government [winokan-60] [vandijk-25], replacing the former contract of 1839 ([suchtelen-21]: 11).

During this period, minimal direct involvement was the Dutch government principle. For example, in 1868, the posthouder at Ende was notified by the Resident that he had been sent there not to govern but only to observe what was happening in Ende [anon-beschrijving]. The posthouders were placed in Ende in order to keep an eye on the Endenese involvement in the slave trade ([bruyne-47b]: 6-7).

Gouverment versluit of 14 Jan. 1879 no. 11. The afdeeling was divided into 4 onderafdeeling -- Larantuka, North Flores, Solor and Alor, each under a posthouder ([anon-beschrijving]: 126).

There were 4 onderafdeelings:

(1) North-Flores under a posthouder (2) South-Flores under a posthouder (3) East-Flores under a civielen gezaghebber (4) Solor under a posthouder ([anon-beschrijving]: 127).

Before 1907, Ende had no ``Controleur'' and the ``posthouder'' there does not seem to have had a strong hold over the area.

For example, in 1874, the Endenese went to Sumba to take part in a war (possibly to do with slave trade), but the posthouder could not do anything, even though the Government did not approve of the slave trade. Also, when a warfare broke out among the Endenese kampongs in 1878, the ``posthouder'' just fled to the Pulau Ende ([suchtelen-21]: 11).
In 1879, the dwelling of the posthouder was attacked by a troop of villagers and one servant was killed [anon-beschrijving].
Another ``posthouder,'' in 1882, could not do anything either when another war broke out between Endenese kampongs. De Vries abstracted descriptions of this war of 1882 from the posthouder's journal, which dramatically illustrates the weak standing of the posthouder at Ende: Towards the end of 1882, when there broke out a war between the north and south villages of the capital Ende, the posthouder here stood powerless against the war.
One day, one of the heads of the parties came to the posthouder to ask for gun powder. As he refused to obey the request, he was told: ``since mister will not give me any gun powder, it is better that he should disappear from Ende today.''
On the following day, the posthouder relented and gave gun powder, that is, 6 packs and 80 cartridges.
Several days after, armed mountain people came openly inside the fence of the posthouder's dwelling to take coconuts, and shouted to the helmsman of the boat lying in the roads. ``These are not the coconuts of the Commandant (the title used here for posthouder); he did not plant them and nobody has ever asked him to stay here.''
Several days later, when the posthouder tried to settle the dispute between the north and south villages, he was told: ``Even if the Resident comes out of Kupang, he must first pay a visit to the villages before we visit him.'' Not long after that, the house of the posthouder was fired upon. ([vries-10]: 22-3).

We can see a few reasons for the weak position of the posthouders. First of all, it was the Dutch government policy at that time not to be involved directly in native affairs, thus posthouders were not assigned any power to govern. Secondly, because of the poor relationship between the raja and the Government, resulting from Dutch concern with the slave trade, the raja would not support the posthouders. The raja was sometimes suspected of a secret alliance with the rebels. More importantly, the raja was still only one figure among local headmen; he was not as strong as the word raja would suggest.

Thus, for the Dutch, the urgent thing to do was to reinforce the power of the rajas of Ende, who were sometimes described as ``weak'' (zwakken radja van Endé ([hulstijn-26]: 133)). Here, before proceeding any further, let us consider the history of the Endenese dynasty, including a founding myth of the rajadom.

Langen tijd geleden woonde in het rij Majapahit iemand, genaamd Djari Djawa.
De oudste broeder van Djari Djawa was in het vezit van een vischsnoer, dat door de familie als ``poesaka'' werd beschouwd. Op zekeren dag ging Djari Djawa zonder toestemming van zijn broeder met dit snoer visschen, met het gevolg, dat het brak. Nu gelastte de oudste der broeders den jongere, dat deze het snoer moest terugbrenge. Djari Djawa begaf zich hierop tot op den bodem der zee en vond het snoer terug; tevens bracht hij een mooie zeeplant mede. Deze platn kweekt3e hij met zorg op.
Op zekeren dag, terwijl het hevig regende, passeerde de oudste der broeders deze plant en besloot één der bladeren te nemen om zich tegen den regen te beschutten. Djari Djawa dit bemerkende, gelastte nu op zijn beurt zijn broeder het blad opnieuw aan de plant vast te hecthen, qaaraan de oudere broeder niet kon voldoen. Hierop besloot Djari Djawa zich naar een ander land te begeven. Hij begaf zich naar het strand, riep daar een walvisch aan, besteeg deze en werd aldus naar de Zuidkust van het eiland Flores gebracht.
Aan de monding van de rivier, wlke bij de kamopng Nanga Baa ($\pm$ 2 uur gaans, ten Westen van Endeh) in zee stroomt, stapte Djari Djawa aan wal. Hij trouwde daarna met eene inheemsche vrouw en vestigde zich later, waar nu Endeh ligt. Eveneens trouwde hij met vrouwen uit Soemba en het landschap Nggéla. Zijn kleinzoon, die met eene vrouw uit het gebergte huwde, werd later door de hoofden der nabij gelegen kampongs to Radja verheven. Hij werd de eerste Radja van Endeh. ([suchtelen-21]: 164, from [vries-10])

According to the founding myth of the rajadom of Ende, a man from overseas (Jawa), who married a daughter of the native lord of the land of Ende, was given power and rights over the land of Ende by his father-in-law, and became the founder of the Endenese dynasty. This first raja is usually named Jari Jawa (possibly derived from the Indonesian expression dari Jawa, ``from Java'', but sometimes called Raden Husen, a Javanese Islamic name.

Another version of this story is found in [roos-60].
In still another version which I collected among the coastal Endenese, the foreignness of the origin of the dynasty ("the stranger kings'' is further emphasized by another transference of the power (from a native lord to his son-in-law, and then from the latter to his son-in-law).

The dynasty's genealogy12 can be reconstructed in Figure \ref{dynasty}.

Before 1890: Lio

After 1890

An incident13, which reveals the not so simple relationship between the Endenese raja and the Dutch Government, happened in the year of 1890, the year which, according to one officer (de Vries), demarcates the period before 1907.

In June 1890, a Kupang-interned prisoner Bara Nuri, an Endenese headman, escaped and returned to Ende. The Dutch Colonial Government requested the raja of Ende to help the Government catch Bara Nuri. After repeated failures, mainly due to the Dutch government's reluctance to help cooperate with the raja, the raja finally managed to capture Bara Nuri.

On returning to Ende, Bara Nuri called for help and set himself up in a village, Manu Nggoo. The raja of Ende (Aru Busman) attacked the village, in vain.
On the 8th of January 1891, the warship Java appeared in Ipi bay of Ende. With this help and about 1,000 men gathered by the effort of the raja, the raja attacked the fortification of Bara Nuri, on the 10th of January, and failed again. In February, reinforcements came from Kupang: the cruiser van Speijck.
Seeing that Bara Nuri would not surrender despite the repeated attack of the raja and the Dutch force, the posthouder (Rozet) sent for a truce. After concluding the peace, Bara Nuri came out, only to be captured by the posthouder, an act of ``treachery'' ([dietrich-83]: 44) on the posthouder's side. Some of the headmen told de Vries later in 1910 that the posthouder had said to Bara Nuri that Bara Nuri should come to Ende so that people could choose him as Raja ([vries-10]: 28).

In 1896, the raja, Pua Noté, was formally appointed as raja of Ende by the Dutch Government.

When another war broke out between the raja of Ende and some other villages (Nanga Baa and Watu Sipi) in 1904, the Government quickly sent a ship, H.M. Mataram, to help the raja.

1907 and After

The political situation of the Endeh onderafdeeling before 1907 was summarized by de Vries as follows:

... the influence of our (Dutch) government did not go further than the vicinity of (the town of) Ende. ...
Besides the necessary improvement, which was considered desirable for Ende and for which orders were given, the Controleur also gave the headmen of the nearby mountain-villages to understand, with emphasis, that their villages had to be tidy, the paths had to be maintained etc., in short, all the ordinary things, but, to which these headmen had never listened. ...
They did not consider the ``Compagnie'' as their master. ([vries-10]: 46-7)

Then came the year 1907, which saw the beginning of the Dutch period of intensification of rule.

At the end of the preceding year, the Dutch Government sent the first Controleur of Flores to Ende, A. Couvreur ([winokan-60]: 71) ([suchtelen-21]: 12), showing its concern to involve itself in the affairs in Flores. In April 1907, Flores was made to form one afdeeling under a controleur [anon-beschrijving].

The general administrative situation at that time was as follows: the eastern part of Flores formed one afdeeling (afdeeling Larantoeka en onderhoorigheden) under a civil gezaghebber. The rest of Flores formed one onderafdeeling under a posthouder (of the afdeeling Soemba en Onderhoorigheden) ([anon-beschrijving]: 126).

Ngéra Ende

In July 1907, the town of Ende, where the Colonial Government set its capital, was raided by rebels led by several mountain Endenese chiefs.

On the 2nd of July 1907, the posthouder received news that some inhabitants of villages (Ndatu Ko (Ndetu Ko'u), Woro Aré, Oné-Koré, Manu Nggo'o, Rowo Réké, Woro Waku, Manu Raru, Ai Bo, Watu Roga, Wora Wao, Keka Wi'i, Pu'u Pari, Kopo Nio, Nua Bosi, Woro Jaa, Woro Karo, Kori Bari, Woro Nanggé, Ndungga, Tombé Koa, Babu, Mbomba Besar, Mau Bongga (Ma'u Rongga), Numba, Péngga Jawa and Nanga Panda ([vries-10]: 48)) planned the abolishment of the government and the destruction of the capital Ende.
On the 3rd of July, the posthouder summoned those suspected headmen to the town of Ende, but the headmen refused to obey the order (ibid 49). On the 5th and 6th of the same month, the whole of the town of Ende was burned down and plundered by mountain villagers. The town inhabitants and the Chinese merchants fled to Pulau Ende. 50 people were reported to have died during the raid (ibid 49). This incident is still remembered by the people there as nggéra E ndé ("the destruction of Ende'').
When the cargo service steamer Van Swoll came to Ende on the 9th of July, she found nothing but the ruins of Ende. With the news, she went to Sumba, from where the government steamer Pelikaan was sent, by the order of the Resident, with reinforcements. Van Swoll,with further reinforcements on board from Kupang, returned to Ende (ibid 42-3).
With these reinforcements, the Controleur began to attack the ``rebels'' on the 11th of July. Even though the counter-attack did not turn out very successfully, the appearance of the Government's artillery and man-power induced many headmen to submit themselves to the government (ibid 49-56).

In this incident, the raja Pua Noté is said to have played a ``treacherous part'' (verraderlijken rol) ([suchtelen-21]: 12).14

Thus, the raja was suspected of prior knowledge of a meeting at Nanga Kéo on the 2nd of July where the village heads decided to plunder Ende, even though the government was not sure whether the raja himself urged them to do so ([vries-10]: 56-7). This suspicion later made the Dutch government decide to exile the raja.

In August, military reinforcement came from Kupang, and the whole land of Flores was pacified by the military force.

On 10 August, military police (The 3rd constabulary (marechaussee) company of the 4th battalion) arrived from Kupang under H. Christoffel. The whole company departed Ende on 12 August to Nua Bosi (a mountain village north of the town of Ende) and from 12 to 28 of August, the area between Ndona and Nanga Panda was repeatedly patrolled; after that the company left for the area known as Rokka (Ngada), which had been notorious for its continuous opposition to the Dutch Government. Rokka had once been attacked in 1890. This time, the operation was conclusive (a detailed account of this operation can be found in [winokan-60]: 11-3). And after this, the Controleur (Couvreur) could set foot in the land of Ngada.

In September, more headmen came to submit to the government. In the same month, the first civil officer (Spruyt) was sent to Ende for east Flores, including Ende, instead of posthouders.

In September and October, the civil officer went to several villages to pacify them. During his absence, on the 21st of October, Rapo Oja and Mari Longga attacked the town of Ende (H. Christoffel was still either in the Ngada or in the Manggarai area). The name of Mari Longga is still familiar to people. This raid was, however, defeated by the force which remained in town.

From this time to 1910, with further reinforcement from Kupang, the Controleur and the armed police repeatedly went through the villages of the area and pacified them, while confiscating rifles and registering the population ([vries-10]: 63-73).

De Vries reported the number of the killed people on the side of ``enemies'' in the operation as follows:
\begin{tabular}{rr} 1907 & 224 \\ 1908 & 146 \\ 1909 & 43 \\ \hline total & 413 \\ \end{tabular}
and the number of confiscated rifles as 5385. ([vries-10]: 74-5)

In 1910, the South (Middel) Flores became an independent onderafdeeling under an independent civil officer [de Bruyne 1947: 8].

The following work song (baka cénda) collected in the Nga'o-region, although not specifically referring to the 1907 event, may help to understand how the people there felt (or feel) toward the Dutch rule:

buu bholo moo

We work only to get tired,

jomba tungga mbonggo

We labour only to get exhausted.

épu ghédu tana

The earthquake shakes the land,

'angi wéo wolo

The wind sways the hill.

tua roka 'opa

The foreigners levy taxes,

'ata dii dhéo

The police capture us.

épa ladé ghédu

Down there, they are shaken,

tolo wolo wéo

Up on the hill, we are swayed.

wéo kédi Déa

Swung on mount Déa

'ura kita ngéra

Our muscles are torn to pieces (we are scared),

sué wesa woku

We have thrown away long elephant tusks,

wéa mérhé réra

We have sold large gold items.

kita panggu pata

We talked in an attractive way (for selling gold items), tusks,

bholo sudu pédé

Only to measure the words (?).

réra wéa mérhé

We have sold large gold items,

réra émbé dimba

Sold as if throwing away,

dau sa'o sina

Down at the coast, at the Chinese shops.

bhaka sa tana

(This is true) all over the land,

mona mé'a kita

Not only us (who suffer).

réra suku bhala

We have sold away suku bhala coins,

mona wedi 'apa

What is the price now.

mona mé'a kita

Not only us (who suffer),

rhembu sa tana

(This is true) all through the land.

mbéo peka minggu

If (the Dutch) tell us the date,

maé peka pedho

Do not put off (what you were told to do).

'iné weta wonggé

Mothers and sisters are worried,

'amé nala ndero

Fathers and brothers are terrified,

daju nuka nanga

(When) the smoke (of the ship) is coming up the river,

kapa nuu mai

(When) the steamship is arriving.

wua 'ata laki

(It comes) to take men aboard,

'ata fai pisu kasi

(And then) women can only grumble.

Series of Reorganization of Rajadoms

After replacement of the raja of Ende and integration of numerous petty kingdoms into a fewer large kingdoms, four raja were assigned to each of the four landschaps.

Raja Pua Noté was exiled first to Alor and then to Kupang. The raja Harum, who succeeded Pua Noté, was also, a couple of months later, exiled to Alor, from where he departed to Mekka, where he died. His younger brother Pua Meno succeeded to the throne in 1909.

First, rajadom of Ende:

Het Radjaschap in zijn tegenwoordigen vorm is een schepping van den laatste jaren. V\'o\'or dien tijd bestond in de nu met Endeh aangeduide landstreek een nog veel gootere chaotische wanorde dan in Tanah Rea.
Toen Radja Inderdewa stierf had Poea Noteh als oudste zoon moeten opvolgen. Hij toefde toentertijd echter meestal op Soemba om oorlog te voeren met Endehsche hulpbende, weshalve Aroe Boesman, zijn jongere broeder tot Radja werd uitgeroepen. Deze regeerde een 10-tal jaren en stierf op reiz naar Mekka.
Zijn zoon Haroen was toen te jong om op te volgen en daarom deed Poea Noteh, wiens eigenlijke naam was La Joesoe, zijn oude rechten gelden.
...
Toen Poea Noteh 4 Juni 1908 door den Raad van Landshoofen tot verbanning veroordeeld werd, volgde Haroen hem eenige maanden vrijwillig in ballingschap naar Alor, waar vandaan hij ter bedevaart naar Mekka toog (1909) en aldaar stierf. Daarop werd zijn jongere broeder Poea Meno in September 1909 to Radja verkozen. Volgens ouden adat zou na Poea Meno de zoon van Haroen, met name Soesman Abdul Rachman, moeten opvolgen. ([suchtelen-21]: 84)
In 1909, the same year when raja Pua Meno was assigned as raja of Ende, Kaka Dupa and Mbaki Mbani were chosen as raja of Tanah Réa and Ndona, respectively. In 1910 (April) as a preliminary step towards the total political/administrative integration of Flores, 63 petty kingdoms ('miniatuurrikjes') were brought into the following 10 landschaps: Tanah Rea, Endeh, Ndona, Wolodjita, Nggela, Mboeli, Ndori, Lise, Poe and Sooi - Moke Asa - Wolo Gai - Wena Ria ([bruyne-47b]: 11).

Tanah Rea shows the most complicated features of the four new rajadoms. Van Suchtelen writes as follows:

For Mbaki Mbani, van Suchtelen writes:

De tegenwoordige Radja van Ndona, Mbaki Mbani, heeft zich immer een trouw dienaar van het Nederlandsch gezag getoond. Vroeger was hij Ria bewa van het kleine landschapje Ndona aan de monding van de rivier van dien naam. In Augustus 1909 werd hij door alle hoofden der thans tot Ndona behoorende districten (met uitzondering van Poe) tot Radja verkkozen. Poe volgde in 1914.
Volgens den adat komt het eerst in aanmerking voor opvolger zijn oudste zoon Tola, daarna Mbaki's tweede zoon Ngadji alias PEtrus, die in ontwikkeling verre boven hem staat.
Hij heeft de Inlandsche scholen te Koepang en Lela doorlopen en maakte met ons een studiereis over Java. ([suchtelen-21]: 85)

The administrative situation in 1914 is shown in the map (Figure \ref{Flores1914}).

Then another rajadom was made from several minute kingdoms:

In 1915, Lisé, Mbuli, Nggéla, Wolo Jita and Ndori were combined to form one landschap Tanah Kunu Lima and Rasi Wanggé was chosen as raja of Tanah Kunu Lima. Mbaki Mbani was chosen raja of Ndona, consisting of the former landschap Ndona, Poe and Sooi-Moke Asa-Wolo Gai- Wena Ria.

Thus the Dutch colonial government took firm action, and until 1924 the administrative system in central Flores remained stable. The system is shown in Figure \ref{admini}.

Reorganization in 1924

In the middle of the relatively peaceful years of the Dutch colonial rule, in 1916, there broke out a rebellion against the Dutch rule in a northern part of Tanah Réa, Wolo Waé, under the then head of the district, Nipa Do. The then Controleur J. F. Sprock described this rebellion in his Memorie van Overgave (1927), the dramatized Indonesian rendering of which can be found in Doko 1973.

This rebellion is one reason for the reorganization of the administrative system of the central Flores in 1924. Another, more important, reason was the economizing policy of the Dutch colonial government. It took place as one of a series of the reorganizations in various parts of Flores (e.g. in 1917 in Riung and in 1931 in both Larantuka and Sikka regions).

Before 1924, the Onderafdeeling Endeh consisted of four landschappen: from the west to the east, Tanah Rea, Endeh, Ndona and Tanah Kunu Lima. Tanah Rea comprised three districts: Wolo Wae, Tanah Djea and Nanga Panda. In 1924, the landschap of Tanah Rea was dissolved and the district of Wolo Wae was assimilated into the landschap of Nageh, while the remaining two districts were assimilated into the landschap of Endeh. At the same time, in 1924, the landschap of Ndona and Tana Kunu Lima were united with two gemeenten from the former landschap Endeh to form one landschap called Lio.15

Genealogical diagrams

Present Indonesian Administration

Under the present Indonesian administration, the whole region belongs to Kabupaten Ende (Ende regency), which, in turn, consists of six kecamatan (sub-districts). In the former landschap Endeh, there are two kecamatan: Kecamatan Nanga Panda, which virtually corresponds to the pre-1924 landschap Tanah Rea, and Kecamatan Ende, which is situated in almost the same place as pre-1924 landschap Endeh. In the former Lio region, there are four kecamatan: Ndona, Detu Soko, Mage Koba (or Ma'u Rolé) and Wolo Waru; the first two and about half of Mage Koba corresponding to the pre-1924 landschap Ndona and the remaining domain of Mage Koba and Wolo Waru being the landschap Tanah Kunu Lima.